I have been looking for an easy way to generate presentations or slide decks. I am pretty happy with the system I have now, which combines
These tools make it possible to create well organized, visually compelling, and informative presentations, but the tools do not guarantee any of that.
The goal of DevOps, and what these tools do provide, is a smooth, reliable process I can use when preparing a presentation. Once I know how I am going to generate my slide deck and make it available on the web, I can devote my attention to the hard parts and the fun parts, like adding a few dumb jokes.
I have enough confidence in my tools that I could fix a typo during a presentation, update the slides on my computer in a few seconds, and the version on the web would be updated about a minute later.
When I use Reveal.js, I can connect my laptop to a projector and show the audience the version on my computer. I do not have to worry about whether the conference’s wifi is overloaded. I can also give people a link to the same file on the web, and they will see the same slides that I use.
The Reveal.js home page is an example of a presentation using the framework. It shows off a lot of features that I do not use. For another example, have a look at the slides version of this blog post, suitable for a 5–10 minute lightning talk.
Markdown is a simple, text-based format that can be translated into HTML or other formats. If you leave comments on GitHub or GitLab, then you can use Markdown format. I use it for taking notes during client meetings and when attending conferences. Some day soon, I will switch to using Markdown for my e-mail, too.
Here are a few examples of Markdown formatting, and how they look after being translated into HTML:
For numbered lists, you can use the same number for each item. This makes it easy to add, remove, or rearrange the items. For nested lists, just indent four spaces:
1. First 1. Second 7. nested 7. nested
You can also use either
* to generate bulleted lists.
For links, put the link text in square brackets and the URL in parentheses:
For headings, just start the line with a few
# characters and a space. It is important for accessibility to keep a consistent structure, so I will only demonstrate the headings that make sense in the current context (after an H3-level heading):
#### H4 heading##### H5 heading###### H6 heading
Pandoc is a document converter. Its goal is to convert anything to anything, and it gets close to this goal by converting anything to Markdown and Markdown to anything:
Pandoc: input formats
$ pandoc --list-input-formats commonmark creole docbook docx dokuwiki epub fb2 gfm haddock html ipynb jats json latex man markdown markdown_github markdown_mmd markdown_phpextra markdown_strict mediawiki muse native odt opml org rst t2t textile tikiwiki twiki vimwiki
Pandoc: output formats
$ pandoc --list-output-formats asciidoc asciidoctor beamer commonmark context docbook docbook4 docbook5 docx dokuwiki dzslides epub epub2 epub3 fb2 gfm haddock html html4 html5 icml ipynb jats json latex man markdown markdown_github markdown_mmd markdown_phpextra markdown_strict mediawiki ms muse native odt opendocument opml org plain pptx revealjs rst rtf s5 slideous slidy tei texinfo textile zimwiki
Pandoc is a command-line tool. If I have the Markdown file
devops-slides.md in my
markdown/directory, and I want to create an HTML version in my
html/ directory, then I would use this command:
$ pandoc \ --standalone \ -t revealjs \ -o html/devops-slides.html \ markdown/devops-slides.md
-t revealjs option tells Pandoc to produce HTML output using the Reveal.js framework.
Technically, continuous integration (CI) refers to a practice, not a tool: the practice of frequently integrating current code changes with the larger codebase. The term is often used to refer to tools that enable that practice by automating the process, making it so easy that it does not slow you down.
GitLab CI is an automation tool that is built into GitLab. It is often used to automate tasks like compiling code and running automated tests. I use it to “compile” Markdown into HTML using Pandoc.
GitLab CI is free and flexible. Here are some of its features:
- fully integrated with GitLab
- free for public repositories
- use any Docker image
- supports jobs and pipelines
- can be triggered by branches, tags, commits
GitLab CI: pages
One of the ways that GitLab CI integrates with GitLab is that you can use it to generate your GitLab Pages. This gives you a lot more flexibility than GitHub Pages. I think that GitHub only gives you three options: commit HTML files to your repository; commit GitHub flavored Markdown (GFM) to be processed using GitHub’s rules; commit Markdown to be processed with Jekyll.
There are three steps to setting up GitLab Pages:
- Create a CI job called
- In that job, add files to
- Save this directory as an artifact.
GitLab CI: example
Here is the configuration I use for those three steps in my Slide Decks repository:
variables: GIT_SUBMODULE_STRATEGY: recursive before_script: - apt-get update -qq && apt-get install -qq -y pandoc - pandoc --version pages: stage: deploy script: - make build - cp -R html public artifacts: paths: - public
You can check the live version of .gitlab-ci.yml in my repository.
Pandoc is not a standard tool available on CI, but it takes just a few lines to install it. Instead of putting the
pandoc command into the CI config file, I run a
make command. (Call me old fashioned, but I think
make is the right tool to use here. It certainly gets the job done!)
Here is how I configure
# .SUFFIXES: .html .md SRCS := $(wildcard markdown/*.md) HTML := $(SRCS:markdown/%.md=%.html) vpath %.md markdown vpath %.html html%.html: %.md pandoc --standalone -t revealjs -o html/$@ $<default: example.htmlbuild: $(HTML) index.md pandoc --standalone -o html/index.html index.md cp -R images reveal.js html
You can also see the live version of Makefile in my repository.
Putting it all together
Now that my automated system is set up, this is the process if I need to fix a typo or make some other change to my slides:
A few seconds after the first two steps, my local copy has been updated. All I have to do is refresh my web browser.
About a minute after pushing the update to my GitLab repository, the version on GitLab Pages gets updated.
There are a couple of variants on the
I sometimes change the default target in
Makefile to whatever presentation I am currently editing. (I do not commit this change.) Then I can just use the command
make (no arguments) in a shell. Easy peasy.
I can also combine the first two steps. I do all my editing in Vim, so I can save and run
make with the command
:w | !make %:r.html
That is a bit much to type the first time around, but once it is in my command history, all I actually type is
:w , or maybe just
@:. In other words, these steps are really quick and easy.
For convenience, here are some of the links from the body of this post: